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The hydrosphere encompasses the vast body of water that exists on, below, and above the Earth's surface. Water, which blankets approximately two-thirds of our planet, includes around 1.4 billion cubic kilometers of liquid and frozen forms, constituting our oceans, lakes, rivers, glaciers, and groundwater reservoirs. A fundamental element in any discourse concerning the hydrosphere is the water cycle, a complex interplay of reservoirs, processes that facilitate the movement of water between them, and the associated rates of transfer. In addition to the water cycle and its dynamic processes, the biogeochemical characteristics of global waters and their implications for climate change and the environment are pivotal areas of study. Through in-situ observations, satellite remote sensing, and numerical modeling, these crucial topics can be thoroughly investigated.

Related courses

  1. Introductory Earth System Science
  2. Global Hydrological Cycles
  3. Advanced Electromagnetic Exploration
  4. Seismic Studies on Atmosphric, Hydrosphric and Lithospheric Processes
  5. Environmental Isotope Geochemistry
  6. Exploration Seismology using Active and Passive Sources
  7. Paleolimnology
  8. Marine Biogeochemistry
  9. Marine Geophysics
  10. Marine Biogeochemistry Lab